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Naujienos | DASFA ir Ko


Dasfa ir KoNaujienos

PENETRON kristalinė betono hidroizoliacija. Kristalų augimas



Kristalų augimas.

Santykis tarp betono pralaidumo ir ilgaamžiškumo



Statybų pramonė turi daugiau kaip 40 metų patirties skvarbiosios kristalinės hidroizoliacijos srityje. Kristalinės hidroizoliacijos Penetron Admix priedas į betoną leidžia statybų pramonei per trumpesnį laiką pastatyti ekonomiškas ir ilgaamžes konstrukcijas, tarnaujančias net iki 60-ies metų ilgiau nei įprastos.

Į betoną įdėjus priedą Penetron Admix, betonas įgauna savybę, atsiradus vandens poveikiui, savaime užsitaisyti ("užgydyti") mikro įtrūkimus, poras ir kapiliarus betono matricoje. Dėl to susidaro vandeniui atsparus betono elementas, galintis atlaikyti aukštą hidrostatinį slėgį ir cheminį poveikį, kurio pH intervalas yra nuo 3 iki 11.

Didžiausias iššūkis yra tai kad, norint, jog žmogus patikėtų šio metodo, naudojamo betono hidroizoliacijai, veikimu, jis pats turi tai pamatyti.

Eksperimentai ir rezultatai

Pagrindinis šio tyrimo tikslas - pateikti vaizdinį įrodymą, kad betono matricoje yra stebimas kristalų augimas, dėl kurio sumažėja betono pralaidumas ir padidėja ilgaamžiškumas.


Vaizdinis patvirtinimas

Sutrūkinėjusio betono su Penetron Admix mėginiai šešis mėnesius buvo laikomi vandenyje ir tiriami mikroskopu, kad būtų galima patvirtinti kristalų augimą. Žemiau esančiuose paveikslėliuose yra nufotografuota ta pati sutrūkinėjusi, to paties mėginio vieta, padidinta skirtingais masteliais (x100, x500 ir x1000). Labai aiškiai matomi adatos pavidalo kristalai besiformuojantys įtrūkime, užpildantys ir savaime užtaisantys įtrūkimą. Kristalai augo ne tik įtrūkime, kristalų augimas yra taip pat stebimas visoje betono matricoje.


PENETRON kristalų augimas 1 pav.

1 pav.                                                                                         


PENETRON kristalų augimas 2 pav.

2 pav.

1 ir 2 paveikslėliai: Kristalų augimas sutrūkinėjusiame betone (1 pav.: Padidinimas x100, 2 pav.: Padidinimas x500)


PENETRON kristalų augimas 3 pav.

3 pav. Kristalų augimas sutrūkinėjusiame betone (Padidinimas x1000)

Pralaidumo testai

Įvairiais testavimo metodais patvirtinamas Penetron Admix priedų, mažinančių pralaidumą, veiksmingumas.

Pagal DIN 1048:5 Vandens pralaidumo testą vertinamas betono mėginių pralaidumas vandeniui, mėginius 72 valandas veikiant 72.5 psi (0.5 N/mm2) slėgiu. Pasibaigus testavimo laikui, mėginiai išimami iš pralaidumo tikrinimo aparato ir perpjaunami pusiau, o vandens įsiskverbimo gylis matuojamas ir pažymimas. Apibendrinti rezultatai pateikiami žemiau esančioje lentelėje.


1 lentelė: DIN 1048:5 Vandens pralaidumo testo rezultatai


Maksimalus vandens prasiskverbimo

gylis coliais (mm)

Vidutinis vandens prasiskverbimo gylis

coliais (mm)

1P (Su Penetron Admix priedu)

Nėra vandens prasiskverbimo

Nėra vandens prasiskverbimo

2P (Kontrolinis)

1.026" (26 mm)

0.695" (18 mm)


Antrasis pralaidumo testas buvo atliktas pagal ASTM standarto D5084 reikalavimus. Bandymas susideda iš prisotintų porėtųjų medžiagų hidraulinio laidumo matavimo su lanksčios sienelės skvarbumo matavimo prietaisu, naudojant A metodą (pastovaus slėgio bandymo metodą) ir D metodą (pastovaus srauto bandymo metodą).

Kontroliniam mėginiui be priedo buvo stebimas 2.1x10-9 cm/s hidraulinis laidumas, lyginant su mėginio, į kurį buvo dėta Penetron Admix priedo, 3.1x10-11 cm/s hidrauliniu laidumu. Abiejų matuojamų mėginių amžius buvo panašus: 40 - 45 dienos. Tai rodo, kad mėginio, į kurį buvo dėta priedo Penetron Admix, hidraulinis laidumas buvo 68 kartus mažesnis nei mėginio, į kuri priedas nebuvo dedamas.



Trečiasis pralaidumo testas buvo atliekamas pagal JAV Kariuomenės Inžinierių korpuso testavimo metodą CRD-C 48-92 Standartinis betono vandens pralaidumo testas. Kontroliniai mėginiai ir Penetron Admix priedu apdoroti mėginiai buvo testuojami naudojant 200 psi vandens slėgį, kol srautas iš esmės tapo pastovus. Vidutinis srautas per paskutines penkias bandymų dienas naudojamas vidutiniam vandens pralaidumui apskaičiuoti. Apibendrinti rezultatai pateikiami žemiau esančioje lentelėje.


2 lentelė: CRD-C 48-92 Vandens pralaidumo testo rezultatai 

Kontrolinis mėginys

Mėginys su Penetron Admix


Vidutinis srautas per paskutines 5 testavimo dienas cm3 /h)



Vidutinis pralaidumas vandeniui (ft3/s)/(ft2(ft head/ft))

2,86 x 10-12

4,82 x 10-13



Šio tyrimo tikslas buvo nustatyti kristalų augimą betono matricoje kaip apdorojimo Penetron Admix priedu rezultatą, patikrinti kaip priedas Penetron Admix sumažina betono pralaidumą, ir nustatyti ar tai turi poveikį betono ilgaamžiškumui.


Pagrindinės tyrimo išvados yra šios:


  • Betonui, kurio sudėtyje yra Penetron Admix priedo, patiriant vandens poveikį, prasideda cheminė reakcija, kurios rezultatas yra kristalų formavimasis visuose mikro įtrūkimuose, porose ir kapiliaruose visoje betono matricoje.

  • Adatos formos kristalų augimas aiškiai matomas tiriant mikroskopu, matosi, kad įtrūkimas yra užpildytas ir užsandarintas.

  • Kristalų augimas matricoje lemia tai, kad sumažėja betono pralaidumas, betonas tampa atsparus vandeniui / hermetiškas.

  • DIN 1048:5 Vandens pralaidumo testas parodė, kad Penetron Admix apdorotą betono mėginį 72 valandas veikiant 72.5 psi (0.5 N/mm2) slėgiu, vandens prasiskverbimo nebuvo, lyginant su kontroliniu mėginiu, kuriame vandens prasiskverbimas buvo 0,695" (18 mm).

  • ASTM Standarto D5084 Vandens laidumo testas parodė, kad betono mėginio, apdoroto Penetron Admix priedu, hidraulinis laidumas buvo 68 kartus mažesnis nei kontrolinio mėginio.

  • CRD-C 48-92 Standartinis betono vandens pralaidumo testas parodė, kad betono mėginio, apdoroto Penetron Admix priedu, pralaidumas 6 kartus mažesnis lyginant su kontroliniu mėginiu.


Pagal ACI 201.2R-01 „Hidraulinio cemento betono ilgaamžiškumas apibrėžiamas kaip jo gebėjimas atsispirti atmosferos poveikiui, cheminiam poveikiui, trinčiai ar kitam nusidėvėjimo procesui. Patvarus betonas išlaiko savo pradinę formą, kokybę ir tinkamumą eksploatuoti būdamas aplinkos poveikyje."

Kadangi vanduo atlieka gyvybiškai svarbų vaidmenį cheminiuose ir fiziniuose procesuose, vykstančiuose betone, įskaitant ir reikalingus, ir žalingus procesus, betono pralaidumo sumažinimas sumažins betono dėvėjimąsi ir padidins jo ilgaamžiškumą.

Penetron parodo egzistuojantį santykį tarp kristalų augimo, sumažėjusio pralaidumo ir betono ilgaamžiškumo.




1. Professional Service Industries Inc. ASTM C39 ir DIN 1048:5 (EN 12390-8):Pralaidumo vandeniui ataskaitos rezultatai.

2. Ardaman & Associated Inc. 2015 m. vasario 12 d. ASTM Standarto D5084 Apdoroto ir neapdoroto betono pralaidumo testavimo ataskaita.

3. TEC Services 2016 m. rugsėjo 26 d. CRD-C 48-92: Pralaidumo vandeniui, Penetron pralaidumo testavimo ataskaita.

4. ACI 201.2R-01



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